Research article

Effects of two different thinning methods on the diameter and basal area increments of silver lime (Tilia tomentosa Moench) target trees in Fruška Gora (Serbia)

Nikola Šušić , Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev

Nikola Šušić
University of Belgrade, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research. Email: nikola.susic@imsi.rs
Martin Bobinac
University of Belgrade,
Siniša Andrašev
University of Novi Sad Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment

Online First: December 30, 2022
Šušić, N., Bobinac, M., Andrašev, S. 2022. Effects of two different thinning methods on the diameter and basal area increments of silver lime (Tilia tomentosa Moench) target trees in Fruška Gora (Serbia). Annals of Forest Research DOI:10.15287/afr.2022.2392


This paper analyses the cumulative effects of selective thinning and thinning from below on diameter and basal area increments of target trees after 25/26 years in 52, 69- and 86-year-old silver lime (Tilia tomentosa Moench) stands. Two target tree collectives were analysed: (1) elite trees selected between 1993–1994 from permanent sampling plots (selective thinning method), and (2) a ‘comparable collective’ of target trees selected in 2019 (25/26 years later) according to the same criteria as the elite trees, in the same stands thinned from below. Elite trees that were selectively thinned had: higher diameter, basal area and volume per tree, higher diameter and basal area increment for a given time period, and lower slenderness coefficients compared to the target trees that were thinned from below at 52 and 69 yr. While diameter increment decreases with age, and differences between elite trees of different ages are clearly delineated, diameter increments of trees thinned from below are not significantly different at 52 and 69 yr. In addition, basal area increment of trees is highest at 69 yr with selective thinning. When thinning from below, there were no significant differences in basal area increments between trees at 69 and 86 yr. Silver lime shows a strong growth response after selective thinning at ages 25/26 and 44 yr. However, our results show that this response is less pronounced when selective thinning begins at 61 yr.


Abetz P., Klädtke J., 2002. The Target Tree Management System: Die Z-Baum-Kontrollmethode. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 121(2): 73–82. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0337.2002.00073.x

Aleksić P., Krstić M., Kanjevac B., Aleksić N. 2014. Growth characteristics of dominant lime trees in an artificially-established stand on the site of beech on Mt. Jastrebac. Šumarstvo 3–4: 143–152. http://www.srpskosumarskoudruzenje.org.rs/pdf/ sumarstvo/2014_3-4/sumarstvo2014_3-4_rad11.pdf [In Serbian]

Assman E., 1970. The Principles of Forest Yield Studies in the Organic Production Structure Increments and Yield of Forest Stands. Elsevier, 506 p. https://doi. org/10.1016/C2013-0-01587-3

Auguie B., Antonov A., 2017. gridExtra: Miscellaneous Functions for ‘Grid’ Graphics. https://CRAN.R-project. org/package=gridExtra

Banković S., Jović D., Medarević M., 1989. Volume tables for silver basswood (Tilia tomentosa Moench). Šumarstvo 6:3–21. [In Serbian]

Bobinac M., 1996. Study of silvicultural needs in the lime stands of Fruška Gora. Šumarstvo 1–2: 36–48. [In Serbian]

Bobinac M., 2004. Effects of selection thinning on beech tree and stand increment on Mt. Južni Kučaj. Glasnik Šumarskog fakulteta 90:65–78. https://doi.org/10.2298/ GSF0490065B [In Serbian]

Bobinac M., 2005. The silvicultural significance of silver lime at the Deliblato Sands. In: ‘Special Nature Reserve The Deliblato Sands, Proceedings VII’, Pančevo, 2005, Public Enterprise ‘Vojvodinašume’ Novi Sad, Forest Estate ‘Banat’ Pančevo, pp 131–144. [In Serbian]

Bobinac M., 2013. New phase of stand degradation in NP Fruška gora. Hrvatska misao 1(61)46: 72–86. [In Croatian]

Bobinac M., 2015. The importance of forest cultivation measures to protect forests from fires in Deliblato Sands (Serbia). Vatrogastvo i upravljanje požarima V(1): 32–56. https://hrcak.srce.hr/146392 [In Croatian]

Bobinac M., Andrašev S., 2009. Eff of silvicultural measures in devitalized middle aged oak stand (Quercus robur L.) on chernozem in Vojvodina. Šumarski List 133(9– 10): 513–526. https://hrcak.srce.hr/42438 [In Croatian]

Bobinac M., Andrašev S., Bauer-Živković A., Šušić N., 2016. Proposal of silvicultural measures in stopping of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill./Swingle) invasion and mitigation of consequences of colonization in degraded stands in the region of National park ‘Fruška Gora’. Acta herbologica 25(1): 43–55 http://scindeks- clanci.ceon.rs/ data/ pdf/ 0354-4311/ 2016/ 0354- 43111601043B.pdf [In Serbian]

Bončina A., Kadunc A., Robic A., 2007. Effects of selective thinning on growth and development of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest stands in south-eastern Slovenia. Annals of Forest Science 64: 47–57. https:// link.springer.com/article/10.1051/forest:2006087

Clark P.J., Evans F.C., 1954. Distance to Nearest Neighbor as a Measure of Spatial Relationships in Populations. Ecology 35(4): 445–453. https://doi. org/10.2307/1931034

Coello J., Becquey J., Ortisset J.P., Gonin P., Piqué M., 2013. Limes (Tilia platyphyllos and T. cordata) for high quality timber. In: ‘Ecology and silviculture of the main valuable broadleaved species in the Pyrenean area and neighbouring regions’. Government of Catalonia, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Food and Natural Environment — Catalan Forest Ownership Centre, Santa Perpétua de Mogoda (Spain) pp 54–61. http://cpf.gencat.cat/web/.content/or_organismes/ or04_centre_propietat_forestal/06-Publicacions/ publicacions_tecniques/colleccions/fitxes_tecniques/ fitxa_t_cnica._frondoses_productores_de_fusta_de_ qualitat/llibre_frondoses_angles_definitiu.pdf

De Jaegere T., Hein S., Claessens H., 2016. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate. Forests 7(3): 56. https://doi. org/10.3390/f7030056

de Mendiburu F., 2021. Package ‘agricolae’, ver. 1.3-5. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2021. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=agricolae

Diaconu D., Kahle H.P., Spiecker H., 2015. Tree-and Stand-level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on a Northeast-and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany. Forests 6(9): 3256–3277. https://doi.org/10.3390/f6093256

Diaconu D., Kahle H.P., Spiecker H., 2017. Thinning increases drought tolerance of European beech: a case study on two forested slopes on opposite sides of a valley. European Journal of Forest Research 136: 319–328. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10342- 017-1033-8

Eaton E., Caudullo G., De Rigo D., 2016. Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos and other limes in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: ‘European atlas of forest tree species’ (Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A., Eds.); Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, 2016, pp. e010ec5. https:// ies-ows.jrc.ec.europa.eu/efdac/download/Atlas/pdf/ Tilia_spp.pdf

EUFORGEN, 2021. Tilia tomentosa, Silver lime. http:// www.euforgen.org/species/tilia-tomentosa/http://www. euforgen.org/species/tilia-tomentosa/ (Accessed 8 October 2021)

Fox J., Weisberg S., 2019. An R Companion to Applied Regression, Third Edition. 2019. SAGE Publications, Inc, 608 p.

Gil W., Zajączkowski G., 2017. Resources of small- leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in the State Forests. Sylwan 161(10): 812–821. https://doi.org/10.26202/ sylwan.2017044

Heinrichs S., Öder V., Indreica A., Bergmeier E., Leuschner C., Walentowski H., 2021. The influence of Tilia tomentosa Moench on plant species diversity and composition in mesophilic forests of Western Romania – A potential tree species for warming forests in Central Europe? Sustainability 13(14): 7996. https:// doi.org/10.3390/su13147996

Hibbs D.E., DeBell D.S., 1994. Management of Young Red Alder. In: ‘The Biology and Management of Red Alder’ (Hibbs DE, DeBell DS, Tarrant RF, eds.), Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University Press: 202–215. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/olympia/silv/publications/ opt/376_HibbsDeBell1994.pdf

Kasper J., Weigel R., Walentowski H., Gröning A., Petritan A.M., Leuschner C., 2021. Climate warming-induced replacement of mesic beech by thermophilic oak forests will reduce the carbon storage potential in aboveground biomass and soil. Annals of Forest Science 78,89: 1–29, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-021-01081-0

Kasper J., Leuschner C., Walentowski H., Petritan A.M., Weigel R., 2022. Winners and losers of climate warming: Declining growth in Fagus and Tilia vs. stable growth in three Quercus species in the natural beech- oak forest ecotone (western Romania). Forest Ecology and Management 506, 119892 https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foreco.2021.119892

Kerr G., 1996. The effect of heavy or ‘free growth’ thinning on oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur). Forestry 69(4): 303–317. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/69.4.303

Latte N., Taverniers P., de Jaegere T., Claessens H., 2020. Dendroecological assessment of climate resilience of the rare and scattered forest tree species Tilia cordata Mill. in northwestern Europe. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research 93(5): 675–684. https://doi. org/10.1093/forestry/cpaa011

Leak W.B., Solomon D.S., 1997. Long-term growth of crop trees after release in northern hardwoods. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 14(3): 147–151. https://doi. org/10.1093/njaf/14.3.147

Leibundgut H., 1966. Die Waldpflege. Bern: Haupt Verlag, 192 p.

Manetti M.C., Becagli C., Sansone D., Pelleri F., 2016. Tree-oriented silviculture: A new approach for coppice stands. iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry 9(5): 791–800. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1827-009

Marchi M., Paletto A., Cantiani P., Bianchetto E., De Meo I., 2018. Comparing Thinning System Effects on Ecosystem Services Provision in Artificial Black Pine (Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold) Forests. Forests 2018, 9(4): 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040188

Marković Lj., Petrović D., 1960. Nega šuma u Srbiji (Education des peuplements forestiers en Serbie). Poljoprivredno šumarska komora NR Srbije, Zadružna knjiga, Beograd, 494 p. [In Serbian]

Medarević M., Banković S., Pantić D., 2001. The condition of forests in Serbian national parks. Zaštita prirode 53/1: 5–19. https://www.zzps.rs/wp/casopisi_pdf/003/ casopis.pdf [In Serbian]

Michailoff I., 1943. Zahlenmäßiges Verfahren für die Ausführung der Bestandeshöhenkurven. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt und Tharandter Forstliches Jahrbuch 6: 273–279.

Montgomery D.C., 2017. Design and Analysis of Experiments, Ninth Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 734 p.

Nicolescu V.-N., 2001. The concept of crop (elite) trees and its use in the management of stands designated to the production of high-value timber. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov 8(43): 141–148.

Novák J., Dušek D., Slodicák M., Kacálek D., 2017. Importance of the first thinning in young mixed Norway spruce and European beech stands. Journal of Forest Science 63(6): 254–262. https://doi. org/10.17221/5/2017-JFS

Oosterbaan A., Hochbichler E., Nicolescu V.-N., Spiecker H., 2009. Silvicultural principles, goals and measures in growing valuable broadleaved tree species. Die Bodenkultur 60(3): 45–51. https://diebodenkultur.boku. ac.at/volltexte/band-60/heft-3/oosterbaan.pdf

Orvis K., Grissino-Mayer H.D., 2002. Standardizing the reporting of abrasive papers used to surface tree-ring samples. Tree-Ring Research 58(1/2): 47–50. https:// repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/262564

Pelleri F., Becagli C., Sansone D., Bianchetto E., Bidini C., Manetti M.C., 2021. New silvicultural approaches for multipurpose management in beech forests. Ann. For. Res. 64(2): 87–103. DOI: 10.15287/afr.2021.2226

Pommerening A., Vítková L., Zhao X., Pallarés Ramos C., 2015. Towards Understanding Human Tree Selection Behaviour. Forest Facts – Results from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Nr 9, SLU. https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/12892/7/Pommerening_et_ al_151207.pdf

Pretzsch H., 2009. Forest Dynamics, Growth, and Yield. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 664 p. https://www. springer.com/gp/book/9783540883067

Quinn G.P., Keough M.J., 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, 553 p. https://doi.org/10.1017/ CBO9780511806384

R Core Team, 2021. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org

Radoglou K., Dobrowolska D., Spyroglou G., Nicolescu V.-N., 2009. A review on the ecology and silviculture of limes (Tilia cordata Mill., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and Tilia tomentosa Moench.) in Europe. Die Bodenkultur, 60(3): 9–19. https://diebodenkultur.boku.ac.at/volltexte/ band-60/heft-3/radoglou.pdf

Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia, 2021. http://www.hidmet.gov.rs/ (Accessed 8 October 2021)

Rytter L., Werner M., 2007. Influence of early thinning in broadleaved stands on development of remaining stems. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22(3): 198–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827580701233494

Schädelin W., 1942. Die Auslesedurchforstung als Erziehungsbetrieb höchster Wertleistung, 3rd edn. Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern, Leipzig, 147 p.

Schneider C.A., Rasband W.S., Eliceiri K.W., 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature methods 9:671–675. https://doi.org/10.1038/ nmeth.2089

Skovsgaard J.P., Johansson U., Holmström E., Tune R.M., Ols C., Attocchi G., 2021. Effects of Thinning Practice, High Pruning and Slash Management on Crop Tree and Stand Growth in Young Even-Aged Stands of Planted Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth). Forests 12(2): 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020225

Sohn J.A., Saha S., Bauhus J., 2016. Potential of forest thinning to mitigate drought stress: A meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management 380:261–273. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.046

Speer J.H., 2009. Fundamentals of Tree-Ring Research. Indiana State University, Terra Haute, IN 47809

Stajić B., Zlatanov T., Velichkov I., Dubravac T., Trajkov P., 2009. Past and recent coppice forest management in some regions of South Eastern Europe. Silva Balcanica 10(1): 9–19. https://silvabalcanica.files.wordpress. com/2013/02/sb-101_2009_2.pdf

Štefančík I., 2013. Development of target (crop) trees in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand with delayed initial tending and managed by different thinning methods. Journal of Forest Science 59:253–259. https://doi. org/10.17221/9/2013-JFS

Štefančík I., Vacek Z., Sharma R.P., Vacek S., Rösslová M., 2018. Effect of thinning regimes on growth and development of crop trees in Fagus sylvatica stands of Central Europe over fifty years. Dendrobiology 79: 141–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.12657/denbio.079.013

Tomić Z., 2013. Natural forest communities of Fruška Gora National Park in light of the latest syntaxonomical and ecosystem principles. Hrvatska misao 1(61), 46: 25–42. [In Croatian]

Turok J., Eriksson G., Kleinschmit J., Canger S., 1996. Noble hardwoods network: Report of the fi meeting, 24–27 March 1996, Escherode, Germany, pp 172. http://www.euforgen.org/fileadmin/templates/euforgen.org/upload/ Publications/ Network_Reports/ 139_Noble_hardwoods_ network. Report_of_the_1st_meeting__24-27_March_1996 Escherode Germany.NH_01.pdf

van der Maarten E., 2013. Thinning prolongs growth duration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across a valley in southwestern Germany. Forest Ecology and Management 306: 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foreco.2013.06.030

Van Laar A., Akça A., 2007. Forest mensuration (Vol. 13). Springer Science & Business Media. 385 p.

Walentowski H., Falk W., Mette T., Kunz J., Bräuning A., Meinardus C., Zang Ch., Sutcliffe L., Leuschner Ch., 2017. Assessing future suitability of tree species under climate change by multiple methods: a case study in southern Germany. Annals of Forest Research 60(1): 101–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.15287/afr.2016.789

Wickham H., 2016. ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis, Second Edition. Springer-Verlag New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24277-4

Yamaguchi D.K., 1991. A simple method for cross- dating increment cores from living trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21(3): 414–416. https://doi. org/10.1139/x91-053

Yoshida T., Kamitani T., 1998. Eff of crown release on basal area growth rates of some broad-leaved tree species with diff shade-tolerance. Journal of Forest Research 3(3): 181–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02762141


Supplementary Files
| DOWNLOAD 729KB
No metrics available for this article.

Related Articles

Related Authors

 



In Google Scholar

In Annals of Forest Research

In Google Scholar

 
  • Nikola Šušić
  • Martin Bobinac
  • Siniša Andrašev
  • Nikola Šušić
  • Martin Bobinac
  • Siniša Andrašev