Temporal trends (1990-2005) in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia
Keywords:air pollution, bryomonitoring, heavy metals, moss survey
AbstractBiomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj) and in a landscape protection area (Velká Fatra). In comparison to the median northern Norway values of heavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mosses decreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.
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